Spain

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"Spain has turned the corner. Growth has resumed, labor market trends are improving, the current account is in surplus, banks are healthier, and sovereign yields are at record lows. But unemployment is unacceptably high, incomes have fallen, trend productivity growth is low, and the deleveraging of high debt burdens - public and private is weighing on growth. Policies. Spain's overarching policy priority must be to ensure the recovery is strong, long-lasting, and most pressingly, job-rich. This requires: Reducing the drag on domestic demand from private sector deleveraging with a more comprehensive, coordinated, approach to corporate debt restructuring, and by introducing a personal insolvency framework. Bolstering banks' ability to support the recovery by continuing to raise capital levels over time, including by limiting cash dividends and bonuses. Creating jobs for the low skilled by sharply cutting the fiscal cost of employing them, compensated by higher indirect revenues. Making the labor market more inclusive and responsive to economic conditions by striking a better balance between highly-protected/permanent and precarious/temporary contracts, and further helping firms adapt working conditions (wages, hours) to their specific circumstances. Helping the unemployed improve their skills and enhancing the support they receive to find a job. Removing regulatory barriers that prevent firms from growing, hiring, and becoming more productive, especially at the regional level. Gradually, but steadily, reducing the fiscal deficit to keep debt on a sustainable path, and making the tax system more growth and job friendly. Policies by Spain's European partners, in particular, sufficient monetary easing by the ECB to achieve its inflation targets"--Abstract.

Spain 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Staff Supplement Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Spain

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498308155
Size: 59.17 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in Spain has resumed, and unemployment is falling. Exporters are gaining market share, and the current account is in surplus for the first time in decades. Financial conditions have improved sharply, with sovereign yields at record lows. Business investment is rebounding strongly and private consumption has also started to recover owing to improved employment prospects and rising confidence. Executive Directors have welcomed the improving Spanish economy. They have stressed that labor market reform should be accompanied by product and service market liberalization to maximize the gains to growth and jobs.

Spain

Author: International Monetary Fund
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452795894
Size: 70.36 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This 2008 Article IV Consultation highlights that after 15 years of impressive growth led by a housing boom, the Spanish economy has entered a sharp downturn in the wake of the global liquidity squeeze since mid-2007. Executive Directors have commended the authorities for their timely and substantial fiscal and financial sector responses to help cushion the downturn. They have emphasized that these efforts need to be complemented by reforms to bolster competitiveness and to avoid a prolonged period of slow growth and high unemployment.

The Political Economy Of Energy Subsidy Reform

Author: Gabriela Inchauste
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464810087
Size: 65.13 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book proposes a simple framework for understanding the political economy of subsidy reform and applies it to four in-depth country studies covering more than 30 distinct episodes of reform. Five key lessons emerge. First, energy subsidies often follow a life cycle, beginning as a way to stabilize prices and reduce exposure to price volatility for low-income consumers. However, as they grow in size and political power, they become entrenched. Second, subsidy reform strategies vary because the underlying political economy problems vary. When benefits are concentrated, satisfying (or isolating) interest groups with alternative policies is an important condition for effective reform. When benefits are diffuse, it can be much harder to identify and manage the political coalition needed for reform. Third, governments vary in their administrative and political capacities to implement difficult energy subsidy reforms. Fourth, improvements in social protection systems are often critical to the success of reforms because they make it possible to target assistance to those most in need. Finally, the most interesting cases involve governments that take a strategic approach to the challenges of political economy. In these settings, fixing energy subsidies is central to the governments’ missions of retaining political power and reorganizing how the government delivers benefits to the population. These cases are examples of “reform engineering,†? where governments actively seek to create the capacity to implement alternative policies, depoliticize tariffs, and build credibility around alternative policies. The most successful reforms involve active efforts by policy leaders to identify the political forces supporting energy subsidies and redirect or inoculate them.

Financial Inclusion

Author: Ms. Era Dabla-Norris
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513563874
Size: 51.30 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have made important strides in promoting financial inclusion of firms and households. However, while the region is broadly at par with its peers on financial inclusion of firms, household inclusion lags behind. Nonetheless, there is substantial heterogeneity across LAC countries. Reducing borrowing costs and strengthening further the regulatory environment, while taking steps to protect efficiency and stability of the financial system, could help close financial inclusion gaps. Reducing financial participation and monitoring costs and relaxing collateral constraints will help spur growth and reduce inequality though trade-offs are likely, as illustrated in the case of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Peru.

Understanding Abnormal Behavior

Author: David Sue
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1305537602
Size: 20.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Featuring current research, high-quality scholarship, and an appealing design, UNDERSTANDING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR, 11th Edition, is a balanced, clear introduction to abnormal psychology. Fully updated to reflect the new DSM-5, the new edition features the Multipath Model of Mental Disorders, which visually and conceptually explains how mental illnesses are caused. Throughout the book, a focus on resilience highlights prevention and recovery from the symptoms of various disorders. This edition also continues its emphasis on the multicultural, sociocultural and diversity aspects of abnormal psychology. The authors present material in a lively and engaging manner, connecting topics to real-world case studies, current events, and issues of particular importance and relevance to today's college students. Overall, the book presents an evenhanded treatment of abnormal psychology as both a scientific and a clinical endeavor. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Evidence Based Practice In Nursing Healthcare

Author: Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 1605477788
Size: 68.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk and Ellen Fineout-Overholt are creators of the ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) Model, an innovative strategy for implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice in healthcare systems. The ARCC Model is cited as an exemplar of education in evidence-based practice in the Board on Health Care Services and the Institute of Medicine's book, Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality. "McInyk and Fineout-Overholt's book should be required reading in all graduate programs. Their text has provided a blueprint for the future of nursing practice and a rigorously substantiated and clearly described means for clinicians, educators, and administrators to participate in improving quality of care." Janet D. Allan, PhD, RN, FAAN Dean and Professor University of Maryland School of Nursing "Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice has been instrumental in developing a culture of evidence-based practice at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. It is fundamental to our curriculum provided to all levels of staff, from new graduate nurses to the highest levels of hospital leadership." Dr. Patricia Potter, RN, PhD, FAAN, Dr. Gail Rea, RN, PhD, CNE, Dr. Karen Balakas, RN, PhD, CNE, Jennifer Williams, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC, Elizabeth Pratt, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC Evidence Equals Excellence group at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Barnes-Jewish School of Nursing at Goldfarb Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice is an exemplary text that spans the continuum of nursing evidence to support best practice. Utilizing this text with undergraduate, RN to BSN, and graduate nursing students, it is the ONLY text that demonstrates how to retrieve, read, and analyze evidence whether it is published as an individual study, systematic review, meta-analysis, best practice guideline, or outcomes management report. Students learn how to utilize multiple complex databases and websites as they move through each chapter. And, they experience dissemination of evidence through the development of presentations, publications, posters, and grants. This is truly a remarkable book that embraces evidence as the basis for nursing practice and patient-centered care and safety. Having used this text with more than 1000 students over the past five years, I can honestly say that I have found no other text that facilitates learning and development of clinical judgment that is grounded in valid, reliable, and applicable evidence. This is a keeper! Alice E. Dupler, JD, APRN-BC Clinical Associate Professor Washington State University College of Nursing "I have used the book since I developed the Evidence-based Practice course for our College of Nursing in Fall 2007. It was the first course of its kind at Indiana State University. It has been well received and the preferred course for all nursing graduate students for completion of their final scholarly projects. The text was essential in developing the course and provides the foundation and guidance that the students need to develop their Evidence Based Practice projects...the students love the text!" Susan Eley PhD, RN, FNP-BC Assistant Professor Director FNP Program Indiana State University

Exchange Rate Assessments

Author: Jaewoo Lee
Publisher: IMF's Occasional Paper
ISBN:
Size: 69.25 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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As part of this mandate, since the mid-1990s the IMF Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER) has provided exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective, with the aim of informing the country-specific analysis of the IMF's Article IV staff reports and fostering multilateral consistency. These assessments are additional tools at the disposal of the IMF staff country desks, which are responsible for formulating exchange rate assessments as part of the Fund's bilateral surveillance, another of the IMF's core responsibilities.

I Will Teach You To Be Rich

Author: Ramit Sethi
Publisher: Workman Publishing
ISBN: 9780761156314
Size: 11.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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At last, for a generation that's materially ambitious yet financially clueless comes I Will Teach You To Be Rich, Ramit Sethi's 6-week personal finance program for 20-to-35-year-olds. A completely practical approach delivered with a nonjudgmental style that makes readers want to do what Sethi says, it is based around the four pillars of personal finance--banking, saving, budgeting, and investing--and the wealth-building ideas of personal entrepreneurship. Sethi covers how to save time by not wasting it managing money; the guns and cars myth of credit cards; how to negotiate like an Indian--the conversation begins with "no"; why "Budgeting Doesn't Have to Suck!"; how to get things rolling--for real--with only $20; what most people don't understand about taxes; how to get a CEO to take you out to lunch; how to avoid the Super Mario Brothers trap by making your savings work harder than you do; the difference between cheap and frugal; the hidden relationship between money and food. Not to mention his first key lesson: Getting started is more important than being the smartest person in the room. Integrated with his website, where readers can use interactive charts, follow up on the latest information, and join the community, it is a hip blueprint to building wealth and financial security. Every month, 175,000 unique visitors come to Ramit Sethi's website, Iwillteachyoutoberich.com, to discover the path to financial freedom. They praise him thoughtfully ("Your site summarizes everything I want with my life--to be rich in finances, rich in experience, rich in family blessings," Dan Esparza) and effusively ("Dude, you rock. I love this site!" Richard Wu). The press has caught on, too: "Ramit Sethi is a rising star in the world of personal finance writing . . . one singularly attuned to the sensibilities of his generation. his style is part frat boy and part silicon Valley geek, with a little bit of San Francisco hipster thrown in" (San Francisco Chronicle). His writing is smart, his voice is full of attitude, and his ideas are uncommonly sound and refreshingly hype-free.

The Leadership Challenge

Author: James M. Kouzes
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
ISBN: 0787997102
Size: 56.28 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The most trusted resource on becoming a leader is now updated and revised for a new generation. This leadership classic continues to be a bestseller after three editions and twenty years in print. It is the gold standard for research-based leadership, and the premier resource on becoming a leader. This new edition, with streamlined text, more international and business examples, and a graphic redesign, is more readable and accessible than ever before. The Leadership Challenge, Fourth Edition, has been extensively updated with the latest research and case studies, and offers inspiring new stories of real people achieving extraordinary results. The authors' central theme remains the same and is more relevant today than ever: "Leadership is Everyone?s Business." Their "five practices" and "ten commitments" have been proven by hundreds of thousands of dedicated, successful leaders. This edition, with almost one-third new material, emphasizes the global community and refocuses on business leaders.