Labor Tax Cuts And Employment A General Equilibrium Approach For France

Author: Raphael A. Espinoza
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498346251
Size: 73.58 MB
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The paper presents a simple supply side, general equilibrium model to estimate the macroeconomic effects of labor tax cuts. The model assumes that output is produced using capital, unskilled and skilled workers, and public servants. Wage formation for skilled workers features a Blanchflower-Oswald wage curve, while the labor supply for unskilled workers is very elastic around the minimum wage for small changes in employment. The model is calibrated for France and used to estimate the output and employment effects induced by two recent tax reforms: the Crédit d’Impôt pour la Compétitivité et l’Emploi (CICE) and the Pacte de Solidarité Responsabilité (RSP). We find that the tax cuts, if not offset by other fiscal measures, would contribute overall to creating around 200,000 jobs in the short run (600,000 jobs in the long run). Since the model abstracts from demand side effects, the results should be interpreted as providing estimates of the effect of tax measures on potential output and potential employment.

France 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For France

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498324169
Size: 27.22 MB
Format: PDF
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This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economy of France fared better than most other large euro areas economies through the crisis, reflecting the resilience of private consumption, lack of financial fragmentation, and lower levels of household and corporate debt. Banks’ financial position has also been strengthened. But after two years of near stagnation, unemployment remains high. A loss of competitiveness has also weighed on growth. The outlook is for a gradual recovery, with GDP growth projected at 0.7 percent in 2014 and 1.4 percent in 2015, based on stronger external and domestic private demand, reflecting gains in real disposable income and improved profit margins.

France Selected Issues

Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513518828
Size: 25.38 MB
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This Selected Issues paper analyzes expenditure reforms in France. After decades of rising public spending and successive tax increases, the medium-term fiscal consolidation path described in the 2015 Stability Program is now fully expenditure based. However, recent efforts of nominal spending containment have not delivered the intended savings in the context of low growth and inflation. A thorough review of the efficiency of public spending could help prepare more fundamental reforms of spending programs and processes to underpin a lasting reduction in expenditures, which reached a record high of 57.2 percent of GDP in 2014.

Youth Unemployment In Advanced Economies In Europe Searching For Solutions

Author: Angana Banerji
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484330064
Size: 78.55 MB
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The SDN will assess the youth unemployment problem in advanced European countries, with a special focus on the euro area. It will document the main trends in youth and adult unemployment in 22 European countries before and after the global financial crisis. It will identify the main drivers of youth and adult unemployment, focusing in particular on the role of the business cycle and structural characteristics of the labor market. It will outline the main elements of a comprehensive strategy to address the problem.

How Do Fiscal And Labor Policies In France Affect Inequality

Author: Mr. Raphael A. Espinoza
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475599803
Size: 52.60 MB
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This paper explores the impact of fiscal and labor market policies on efficiency, inequality, and fiscal outcomes in France. We extend the general equilibrium model calibrated for France by Alla and others (2015), with measures of labor and capital income for different groups in the economy (the unemployed, unskilled workers, skilled workers, public servants). For each of these groups we combine data on the income distribution with the outcomes of policy simulations to assess the impact of a suite of stylized policies on output, the fiscal balance, the Gini coefficient, and the shape of the Lorenz curve. We find that most types of fiscal expansions, while adding to the deficit and debt in the near term, generally reduce inequality, the main exception being capital income tax cuts. A reduction of the minimum wage has an ambiguous impact on the income distribution: the Gini coefficient increases, but the lowest income quintile improves its relative position in the income distribution thanks to positive employment effects. The paper also finds scope for “win-win” policy packages that could improve overall efficiency, inequality, and fiscal outcomes, for instance if targeted labor tax reductions are offset by cuts in the public wage bill.

Post Keynesian Macroeconomics

Author: Mathew Forstater
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135981213
Size: 71.49 MB
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Edited by three very well known academics in the field and contributed to by John Smithin, Laurence Moss and G. C. Harcourt, this volume reflects the breath of the honouree’s interests and as such it covers a wide range of topics including political economy, labour economics, history of economic thought and macroeconomics. Ingrid Rima, one of the first women to teach economics in America, has been a major figure in the development of Post-Keynesian economics over the past forty years. Rima has made numerous contributions to the fields of labour economics, history of economic thought, and Post Keynesian economic theory and in this volume the editors and contributors recognize them.

General Theory Of Employment Interest And Money

Author: John Maynard Keynes
Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist
ISBN: 9788126905911
Size: 42.13 MB
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John Maynard Keynes Is The Great British Economist Of The Twentieth Century Whose Hugely Influential Work The General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money Is Undoubtedly The Century S Most Important Book On Economics Strongly Influencing Economic Theory And Practice, Particularly With Regard To The Role Of Government In Stimulating And Regulating A Nation S Economic Life. Keynes S Work Has Undergone Significant Revaluation In Recent Years, And Keynesian Views Which Have Been Widely Defended For So Long Are Now Perceived As At Odds With Keynes S Own Thinking. Recent Scholarship And Research Has Demonstrated Considerable Rivalry And Controversy Concerning The Proper Interpretation Of Keynes S Works, Such That Recourse To The Original Text Is All The More Important. Although Considered By A Few Critics That The Sentence Structures Of The Book Are Quite Incomprehensible And Almost Unbearable To Read, The Book Is An Essential Reading For All Those Who Desire A Basic Education In Economics. The Key To Understanding Keynes Is The Notion That At Particular Times In The Business Cycle, An Economy Can Become Over-Productive (Or Under-Consumptive) And Thus, A Vicious Spiral Is Begun That Results In Massive Layoffs And Cuts In Production As Businesses Attempt To Equilibrate Aggregate Supply And Demand. Thus, Full Employment Is Only One Of Many Or Multiple Macro Equilibria. If An Economy Reaches An Underemployment Equilibrium, Something Is Necessary To Boost Or Stimulate Demand To Produce Full Employment. This Something Could Be Business Investment But Because Of The Logic And Individualist Nature Of Investment Decisions, It Is Unlikely To Rapidly Restore Full Employment. Keynes Logically Seizes Upon The Public Budget And Government Expenditures As The Quickest Way To Restore Full Employment. Borrowing The Money To Finance The Deficit From Private Households And Businesses Is A Quick, Direct Way To Restore Full Employment While At The Same Time, Redirecting Or Siphoning Off The Funds From The Private Sector Which Caused The Over-Production Is In The First Place. Keynes S Theory Is Unquestionably Significant In Understanding Of Modern Economics. Far From Being Destructive, It Alone Has Been Responsible For Nearly 60 Years Of Growth Without A Major Depression As We Experienced Worldwide In The 1930S.While The Present Book Is Indispensable For The Students, Researchers And Teachers Of Economics, It Is Highly Useful For The General Readers Keenly Interested In Understanding Nation S Economy.

Economics

Author: Paul Anthony Samuelson
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies
ISBN: 9780070548794
Size: 77.93 MB
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Contains chapter overview and outline, learning objectives, key concept review, helpful hints, multiple choice questions and problem solving questions

The Conscience Of A Liberal

Author: Paul Krugman
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393067114
Size: 12.68 MB
Format: PDF
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"The most consistent and courageous—and unapologetic—liberal partisan in American journalism." —Michael Tomasky, New York Review of Books In this "clear, provocative" (Boston Globe) New York Times bestseller, Paul Krugman, today's most widely read economist, examines the past eighty years of American history, from the reforms that tamed the harsh inequality of the Gilded Age and the 1920s to the unraveling of that achievement and the reemergence of immense economic and political inequality since the 1970s. Seeking to understand both what happened to middle-class America and what it will take to achieve a "new New Deal," Krugman has created his finest book to date, a "stimulating manifesto" offering "a compelling historical defense of liberalism and a clarion call for Americans to retake control of their economic destiny" (Publishers Weekly). "As Democrats seek a rationale not merely for returning to power, but for fundamentally changing—or changing back—the relationship between America's government and its citizens, Mr. Krugman's arguments will prove vital in the months and years ahead." —Peter Beinart, New York Times