Diet Microbe Interactions In The Gut

Author: Kieran Tuohy
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124079415
Size: 39.50 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

Insights Into Microbe Microbe Interactions In Human Microbial Ecosystems Strategies To Be Competitive

Author: Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945052X
Size: 14.21 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

The Gut Brain Axis

Author: Niall Hyland
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025441
Size: 55.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

Probiotics And Prebiotics

Author: Koen Venema
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781910190098
Size: 65.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Composed of nearly a thousand different types of micro-organisms, some beneficial, others not, the human gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. This is due to the presence of probiotic or beneficial microbes, or due to the feeding of prebiotics that stimulate the endogenous beneficial microbes: these promote health by stimulating the immune system, improving the digestion and absorption of nutrients, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. The notable health benefits of probiotic organisms have stimulated much commercial interest, which in turn has led to a plethora of research initiatives in this area; these range from studies to elucidate the efficacy of the various health benefits to analyses of the diet-microbe interaction as a means of modulating the gut microbiota composition. Research in this area is at a very exciting stage. With state-of-the-art commentaries on all aspects of probiotics and prebiotics research, this book provides an authoritative and timely overview of the field. Written by leading international researchers, each chapter affords a critical insight to a particular topic, reviews current research, discusses future direction and aims to stimulate discussion. Topics range from the different microorganisms used as probiotics (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, yeast, etc) and techniques and approaches used (metagenomics, etc) to the reviews of the clinical and medical aspects. The provision of extensive reference sections positively encourages readers to pursue each subject in greater detail. Containing 33 chapters, the book is an invaluable source of information and essential reading for everyone working with probiotics, prebiotics and the gut microbiotflora, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist, in academia, the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industries and working in clinical environments.

The Good Gut

Author: Justin Sonnenburg
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0698181026
Size: 77.13 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The groundbreaking science behind the surprising source of good health Stanford University’s Justin and Erica Sonnenburg are pioneers in the most exciting and potentially transformative field in the entire realm of human health and wellness, the study of the relationship between our bodies and the trillions of organisms representing thousands of species to which our bodies play host, the microbes that we collectively call the microbiota. The microbiota interacts with our bodies in a number of powerful ways; the Sonnenburgs argue that it determines in no small part whether we’re sick or healthy, fit or obese, sunny or moody. The microbiota has always been with us, and in fact has coevolved with humans, entwining its functions with ours so deeply, the Sonnenburgs show us, humans are really composite organisms having both microbial and human parts. But now, they argue, because of changes to diet, antibiotic over-use, and over-sterilization, our gut microbiota is facing a “mass extinction event,” which is causing our bodies to go haywire, and may be behind the mysterious spike in some of our most troubling modern afflictions, from food allergies to autism, cancer to depression. It doesn’t have to be this way. The Good Gut offers a new plan for health that focuses on how to nourish your microbiota, including recipes and a menu plan. In this groundbreaking work, the Sonnenburgs show how we can keep our microbiota off the endangered species list and how we can strengthen the community that inhabits our gut and thereby improve our own health. The answer is unique for each of us, and it changes as you age. In this important and timely investigation, the Sonnenburgs look at safe alternatives to antibiotics; dietary and lifestyle choices to encourage microbial health; the management of the aging microbiota; and the nourishment of your own individual microbiome. Caring for our gut microbes may be the most important health choice we can make. From the Hardcover edition.

Gastrointestinal Microbiology

Author: Roderick Mackie
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412983610
Size: 63.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Extremely diverse and complicated bacterial and protozoan populations inhabit the rumen and intestinal tract of animals, and there is a delicate balance among the individual populations within this complex microbial community. This authoritative edited volume, the first in a two-volume set, reviews the gut environment and the fermentations taking place in animal digestive tracts. It is an essential source of reference for microbial ecologists and physiologists, medical microbiologists and gastroenterologists, biochemists, nutritionists, veterinarians and animal scientists, and wildlife ecologists.

The Mind Gut Connection

Author: Emeran Mayer
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 0062376594
Size: 12.83 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Combining cutting-edge neuroscience with the latest discoveries on the human microbiome, a practical guide in the tradition of Wheat Belly and Grain Brain that conclusively demonstrates the inextricable, biological link between mind and body. We have all experienced the connection between our mind and our gut—the decision we made because it “felt right”; the butterflies in our stomach before a big meeting; the anxious stomach rumbling when we’re stressed out. While the dialogue between the gut and the brain has been recognized by ancient healing traditions, including Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, Western medicine has failed to appreciate the complexity of how the brain, gut, and more recently, the microbiome—the microorganisms that live inside us—communicate with one another. In The Mind-Gut Connection, Dr. Emeran Mayer, executive director of the UCLA Center for Neurobiology of Stress, offers a revolutionary look at this developing science, teaching us how to harness the power of the mind-gut connection to take charge of our health. The Mind-Gut Connection shows how to keep the brain-gut communication clear and balanced to: • heal the gut by focusing on a plant-based diet • balance the microbiome by consuming fermented foods and probiotics, fasting, and cutting out sugar and processed foods • promote weight loss by detoxifying and creating healthy digestion and maximum nutrient absorption • boost immunity and prevent the onset of neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s • generate a happier mindset and reduce fatigue, moodiness, anxiety, and depression • prevent and heal GI disorders such as leaky gut syndrome, food sensitivities and allergies, and IBS, as well as digestive discomfort such as heartburn and bloating • and much more.

Aquaculture Nutrition

Author: Daniel L. Merrifield
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118897277
Size: 55.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Manipulation of the microbial gut content of farmed fishes and crustaceans can have a marked effect on their general health, growth, and quality. Expertly covering the science behind the use of prebiotics and probiotics this landmark book explains how the correct manipulation of the gut flora of farmed fishes and crustaceans can have a positive effect on their health, growth rates, feed utilization, and general wellbeing. Aquaculture Nutrition: Gut Health, Probiotics and Prebiotics provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of the gut microbiomes of fish and their importance with respect to host-fish health and performance, providing in-depth, cutting-edge fundamental and applied information. Written by many of the world’s leading authorities and edited by Dr Daniel Merrifield and Professor Einar Ringø, this important book discusses in detail the common mechanisms for modulating microbiomes, particularly at the gut level (e.g. probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics). The book is a key resource for an understanding of the historical development of these products, their known mechanisms of action and their degree of efficacy as presently demonstrated in the literature. The fundamental material provided on the gut microbiota itself, and more broad aspects of microbe-live feed interactions, provide essential reading for researchers, academics and students in the areas of aquaculture nutrition, fish veterinary science, microbiology, aquaculture, fish biology and fisheries. Those involved in the development and formulation of aquaculture feeds and those with broader roles within the aquaculture industry will find a huge wealth of commercially-important information within the book’s covers. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological sciences, nutrition and aquaculture are studied and taught, should have copies of this excellent book on their shelves.

Between Pathogenicity And Commensalism

Author: Ulrich Dobrindt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642365604
Size: 40.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This comprehensive, interdisciplinary book covers different aspects of relevant human pathogens and commensals. The ongoing development of (meta-)genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and their host interaction provides a comprehensive introduction to the microbiological analysis of host-microbe interplay and its consequences for infection or commensalism.

Handbook Of Diet Nutrition And The Skin

Author: Victor R. Preedy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9086867294
Size: 65.74 MB
Format: PDF
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Studies have clearly shown that optimal diet and nutrition can prevent skin disease. Moreover, novel nutritional components have been used experimentally to treat skin conditions. However, the clinical application of these nutrients awaits confirmation. It is thus up to health care professionals to present new knowledge in order to provide advice or treatments for skin problems. This handbook provides, in a single volume, comprehensive coverage of the relation between skin and diet and nutrition in its broadest sense. The Handbook of diet, nutrition and the skin consists of sections on general aspects of skin, nutrition and diet, micronutrients, nutraceuticals, cancer and specific skin conditions. Unique features of each chapter in this volume include relevant and useful 'key facts' which highlight interesting or important findings of the specific subjects and 'summary points' that are designed to abstract each chapter in take home messages. This handbook will be of interest to a wide range of readers, such as dermatologists, doctors, nurses and those interested in, or working within the area of skin health. This will of course also include nutritionists and dieticians, dermatologists, cosmetic scientists, health workers and practitioners, college and university lecturers and undergraduate and graduate students.