Conscientious Objectors Of The Second World War

Author: Ann Kramer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1844681181
Size: 62.48 MB
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Even today, most histories of the world wars focus on those who fought. Those who refused to fight are usually overlooked, or just mentioned in passing, sometimes in a very dismissive manner. However, during the First World War, 16,000 men in Britain refused conscription: they believed it was wrong to take up arms and kill. Known as conscientious objectors they were humiliated, abused and imprisoned for their stand. More than 70 died because of brutal treatment. Twenty years later, during the Second World War, there were more than 60,000 conscientious objectors in Britain. They were treated more humanely but even so, many people neither understood nor sympathized with their stand. A Determined Resistance: Conscientious Objectors of the First World War and Refusing to Fight: Conscientious Objectors of the Second World War tell the stories of these remarkable men – and women – who bravely took a stand against war and refused to be conscripted. The books ask who the conscientious objectors were, what reasons they gave for refusing to fight and how they were treated. They look at the impact of conscientious objectors and ask how their actions should be viewed today. To bring this fascinating subject to life, author Ann Kramer has used extensive prime sources such as interviews, letters, diaries, memoirs, and contemporary newspapers. She also places the experiences of conscientious objectors into the wider context of a national and international peace and anti-war movement. The focus is mainly on Britain but will also include material on pacifists, war resisters and conscientious objectors elsewhere in the warring world, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany.

Conscientious Objectors And The Second World War

Author: Cynthia Eller
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Size: 64.28 MB
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Drawing largely on interviews with 60 World War II conscientious objectors, this study provides an oral history of the difficulties encountered as a conscientious objector in the "Last Good War."

Against The Draft

Author: Peter Brock
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 144265788X
Size: 33.45 MB
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Around the world and for hundreds of years, men and women have refused to be drafted into bearing arms for their nations' wars. These conscientious objectors to the draft are the subject of Peter Brock's latest collection, Against the Draft. Brock, the world's leading historian on pacifism, has assembled twenty-five of his essays on conscientious objection to the draft from the beginning of the Radical Reformation in 1525 to the end of the Second World War. Included in the collection are essays on little known facets of the anti-draft movement including the Anabaptist-Mennonite tradition of military exemption that started with the outset of the Radical Reformation in 1525 and has continued, with variations, until the present. Further articles deal with the Quakers in a number of countries, Civil-war America, Leo Tolstoy (who became a convinced pacifist in the later part of his life,) British conscientious objectors in the Non-Combatant Corps, the emergence of conscientious objection in Japan, and the fate of conscientious objectors in the psychiatric clinics of Germany and in interwar Poland. Essays on the Central European Nazerenes and on Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany highlight the exceptionally harsh treatment meted out to conscientious objectors belonging to these two sects, and their steadfast resistance to the state's demand to bear arms. Against the Draft makes an important contribution to the growing study of pacifism and conscientious objection, and represents a key work in the career of the field's foremost scholar.

Conscientious Objectors Of The First World War

Author: Ann Kramer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 184468119X
Size: 68.63 MB
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The story of conscientious objection in Britain begins in 1916, when conscription was introduced for the first time. Some 16,000 men ã the first conscientious objectors ã refused conscription because they believed on grounds of conscience that it was wrong to kill and wrong of any government to force them to do so. As historians mark the centenary of the First World War much emphasis is placed on the bravery of those men who fought and died in the trenches. But those who refused to kill were also courageous. Conscientious objectors in the First World War were treated brutally: they were seen as cowards and traitors, vilified, abused, forced into the army, brutalised and tortured. Some were even sentenced to death in an attempt to break their resistance. Many spent long months and years in prison. Nothing though that the authorities did broke the determined resistance of these men, whose deeply held principles and belief that killing was wrong carried them through and stands as a beacon for individual conscience to this day. ??Conscientious Objectors of the First World War: A Determined Resistance tells the stories of these remarkable men. It looks at who they were, why they took the stand they did and how they were treated. To bring their voices and experiences to life, Ann Kramer, has used extensive prime source material, including interviews, memoirs and contemporary newspapers. Working from these she describes what it was like for COs to face hostile tribunals, be forced into the army, defy army regulations, be brutalised and endure repeated terms of imprisonment. She concludes by looking at their legacy, which was profound, inspiring a second generation of conscientious objectors during the Second World War, a continuing story that Ann Kramer describes in her companion volume Conscientious Objectors of the Second World War: Refusing to Kill.

General Lewis B Hershey And Conscientious Objection During World War Ii

Author: Nicholas A. Krehbiel
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
ISBN: 0826272622
Size: 45.82 MB
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During World War II, the United States drafted 10.1 million men to serve in the military. Of that number, 52,000 were conscientious objectors, and 12,000 objected to noncombatant military service. Those 12,000 men served the country in Civilian Public Service, the program initiated by General Lewis Blaine Hershey, the director of Selective Service from 1941 to1970. Despite his success with this program, much of Hershey’s work on behalf of conscientious objectors has been overlooked due to his later role in the draft during the Vietnam War. Seeking to correct these omissions in history, Nicholas A. Krehbiel provides the most comprehensive and well-rounded examination to date of General Hershey’s work as the developer and protector of alternative service programs for conscientious objectors. Hershey, whose Selective Service career spanned three major wars and six presidential administrations, came from a background with a tolerance for pacifism. He served in the National Guard and later served in both World War I and the interwar army. A lifelong military professional, he believed in the concept of the citizen soldier—the civilian who responded to the duty of service when called upon. Yet embedded in that idea was his intrinsic belief in the American right to religious freedom and his notion that religious minorities must be protected. What to do with conscientious objectors has puzzled the United States throughout its history, and prior to World War II, there was no unified system for conscientious objectors. The Selective Service Act of 1917 only allowed conscientious objection from specific peace sects, and it had no provisions for public service. In action, this translated to poor treatment of conscientious objectors in military prisons and camps during World War I. In response to demands by the Historic Peace Churches (the Brethren, Mennonites, and the Society of Friends) and other pacifist groups, the government altered language in the Selective Service Act of 1940, stating that conscientious objectors should be assigned to noncombatant service in the military but, if opposed to that, would be assigned to “work of national importance under civilian direction.” Under the direction of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and with the cooperation of the Historic Peace Churches, Hershey helped to develop Civilian Public Service in 1941, a program that placed conscientious objectors in soil conservation and forestry work camps, with the option of moving into detached services as farm laborers, scientific test subjects, and caregivers, janitors, and cooks at mental hospitals. Although the Civilian Public Service program only lasted until 1947, alternative service was required for all conscientious objectors until the end of the draft in 1973. Krehbiel delves into the issues of minority rights versus mandatory military service and presents General Hershey’s pivotal role in the history of conscientious objection and conscription in American history. Archival research from both Historic Peace Churches and the Selective Service makes General Lewis B. Hershey and Conscientious Objection during World War II the definitive book on this subject.

A Different Kind Of War Story

Author: Edward M. Arnett
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1469198029
Size: 55.60 MB
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Summary of A Different kind of War Story- a Quaker conscientious objector in WWII The book carries the writer through his experiences in WWII as a draftee into Civilian Public Service ( CPS ), the official structure for handling conscientious objectors ( COs ) . Among his various assignments to CPS camps and projects are that to the Forest Service Smokejumper unit where he parachuted into remote areas of the Rockies to put out small forest fires before they become big. Also , of special interest is his description of transferring 1, 200 wild horses on a cargo ship to Poland as aid for reestablishing Polish agriculture and some observations on Poland under the Soviet occupation during the early years of the cold war .

I Will Not Fight

Author: Pat Starkey
Publisher: Liverpool University Press
ISBN: 9780853234678
Size: 69.98 MB
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This essay discusses the activities of those in North-West England who, during the Second World War, were unwilling to participate in military action, whether for religious and moral or for political reasons. Many overcame their individualism in order to form a variety of groupings, partly for self-protection but mainly in order to demonstrate their willingness and capacity to undertake social tasks they considered beneficial. Humanitarian activities, for instance, in relation to victims of bombing led to a more general interest in helping disadvantaged families. This in turn led up to the formation of Pacifist Service Units and the development of "case-work" social activities. After the war these units, dropping their pacifist connection, generated the Family Service Units movement, where family case-work was widely respected as an essential feature of national social and community policy.

Universal Declaration Of Human Rights

Author: United Nations
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781523393725
Size: 76.69 MB
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The UDHR was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 and was forged by representatives of different legal and cultural backgrounds from all the globe. It is a milestone document in the history of human rights and have sacramented, for the first time, fundamental rights to be protected all over the world. At a time when we are faced with so many human rights violations, we hope that this publication be useful to students and legal professionals, and also to the lay public.

Peace Was In Their Hearts

Author: Richard C. Anderson
Publisher: Herald Press (VA)
ISBN: 9780836190533
Size: 41.37 MB
Format: PDF
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Richard C. Anderson presents reflections of a thousand conscientious objectors (COs) who served in Civilian Public Service during World War II. They speak passionately of their convictions and dreams and modestly of their accomplishments. This is a moving chronicle by those who refused to go the killing fields of war.