Bhutan 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Bhutan

Author: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498373178
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This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the GDP growth in Bhutan has slowed from about 10 percent in FY2011 (July 1–June 30) to 5 percent in FY2013. Slower growth reflects policy efforts to contain overheating pressures in the form of restrictions on credit for construction and vehicle. Inflation has remained elevated, tracking closely that of India (Bhutan’s main trading partner). Social development indicators have improved steadily, and Bhutan is on track or has achieved most of its Millennium Development Goals. Growth is projected to recover to 6½ percent in FY2014, driven mainly by a pick-up in hydropower-related construction activities and domestic services.

The Bhutan Electric Vehicle Initiative

Author: Da Zhu
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464807558
Size: 10.88 MB
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As the country that inspires the world with ‘gross national happiness’ development philosophy, Bhutan is striving to pursue its economic growth while committing to its core values of inclusive and green development. Even with robust economic growth rates, Bhutan’s dependence on imports and hydropower revenues drives the country to search for self-reliant option to fuel the economy while further decarbonizing the economy. Electric vehicle is being explored as one of the key policies to introduce green mobility, reduce fossil fuel imports and put the country firmly on a green growth path. Globally, electric vehicles market and technology are still in the nascent stage but are developing rapidly. The automotive industry has adopted electrification as a pillar of future drive train technology. EV uptake is expected to increase significantly with ongoing improvements in technology and resulting cost decreases in the global market. This report aims to help Bhutan think through various technical and policy issues of introducing electric vehicles in its own context. It analyses a variety of factors that will impact adoption of electric vehicles from technical, market and financial feasibility to consumer awareness and stakeholders’ capacity. It also addresses several policy questions which are at the heart of public debate such as affordability of the government to undertake the program, economic costs and benefits, distributional impact, fiscal, and macroeconomic implications. Drawing from vast international experiences, the report examines in great technical details how global cutting-edge technology like electric vehicles could be pursued in the context of developing economies with different socio-economic characteristics and constraints compared to advanced economies. It will help readers better grasp the technical, financial, economic and social challenges as well as opportunities in initiating electric vehicles program and provide practical recommendations that will be useful for policy makers in designing their own EV initiative.

Breaking The Oil Spell

Author: Reda Cherif
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484317785
Size: 28.84 MB
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The “Gulf Falcons”—the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council—have high living standards as a result of large income flows from oil. The decline of oil prices between summer 2014 and fall 2015 underscores the urgency for the Gulf Falcons to diversify away from their current heavy reliance on oil exports. This book discusses attempts at diversification in the Middle East and North Africa and the complex choices policymakers face. It brings together the views of academics and policymakers to offer practical advice for future efforts to increase productivity growth.

Does Inflation Slow Long Run Growth In India

Author: Mr. Kamiar Mohaddes
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498312365
Size: 79.29 MB
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This paper examines the long-run relationship between consumer price index industrial workers (CPI-IW) inflation and GDP growth in India. We collect data on a sample of 14 Indian states over the period 1989–2013, and use the cross-sectionally augmented distributed lag (CSDL) approach of Chudik et al. (2013) as well as the standard panel ARDL method for estimation—to account for cross-state heterogeneity and dependence, dynamics and feedback effects. Our findings suggest that, on average, there is a negative long-run relationship between inflation and economic growth in India. We also find statistically-significant inflation-growth threshold effects in the case of states with persistently-elevated inflation rates of above 5.5 percent. This suggest the need for the Reserve Bank of India to balance the short-term growthinflation trade-off, in light of the long-term negative effects on growth of persistently-high inflation.

Exchange Rate Assessments

Author: Mr. Jaewoo Lee
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1451932316
Size: 76.35 MB
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The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on multilateral surveillance, macro-financial linkages, and the implications of globalization. The IMF's Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER)--formed in the mid-1990s to provide exchange rate assessments for a number of advanced economies from a multilateral perspective--has therefore broadened its mandate to cover both key advanced economies and major emerging market economies. This Occasional Paper summarizes the methodologies that underpin the expanded analysis.

Trust Voice And Incentives

Author: Hana Brixi
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464804575
Size: 80.80 MB
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This report examines the role of incentives, trust, and engagement as critical determinants of service delivery performance in MENA countries. Focusing on education and health, the report illustrates how the weak external and internal accountability undermines policy implementation and service delivery performance and how such a cycle of poor performance can be counteracted. Case studies of local success reveal the importance of both formal and informal accountability relationships and the role of local leadership in inspiring and institutionalizing incentives toward better service delivery performance. Enhancing services for MENA citizens requires forging a stronger social contract among public servants, citizens, and service providers while empowering communities and local leaders to find 'best fit' solutions. Learning from the variations within countries, especially the outstanding local successes, can serve as a solid basis for new ideas and inspiration for improving service delivery. Such learning may help the World Bank Group and other donors as well as national and local leaders and civil society, in developing ways to enhance the trust, voice, and incentives for service delivery to meet citizens’ needs and expectations.

Drivers Of Financial Integration Implications For Asia

Author: Nasha Ananchotikul
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 151358183X
Size: 65.90 MB
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Deeper intraregional financial integration is prominent on Asian policymakers’ agenda. This paper takes stock of Asia’s progress toward that objective, analyzing recent trends in cross-border portfolio investment and bank claims. Then, it investigates the drivers of financial integration by estimating a gravity model of bilateral financial asset holdings on a large sample of source and destination countries worldwide, focusing in particular on the role of regulation and institutions. The paper concludes that financial integration in Asia could be enhanced through policies that lower informational frictions, continue to buttress trade integration and capital market development, remove restrictions to foreign flows and bank penetration, and promote a common regulatory framework.

Sovereign Debt And The Financial Crisis

Author: Carlos A. Primo Braga
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821385432
Size: 61.90 MB
Format: PDF
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The book presents and discusses policy-relevant research on the current debt challenges which developing, emerging market and developed countries face. Its value added lies in the integrated approach of drawing on theoretical research and evidence from practitioners' experience in developing and emerging market countries.

Imf Financial Operations 2014

Author: International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484317440
Size: 56.89 MB
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IMF Financial Operations 2014 provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills its mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides background detail of the financial statements for the IMF’s activities during the most recent financial year. This publication updates a previous report entitled Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, first published in 1986 and last issued in 2001 (the sixth edition). That 2001 report reflected the seismic shifts in the global economy and in the IMF’s structure and operations that occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union and the various currency and financial crises of the 1990s. This revised and updated report covers more recent developments, including measures taken in response to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the institutional reforms aimed at ensuring that the IMF’s governance structure evolves in line with developments in the global economy, as well as reforms to the IMF’s income model.

The Extractive Industries Sector

Author: Håvard Halland
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464806055
Size: 34.37 MB
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The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Policy makers, economists, and public finance professionals working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector, its economics, governance, and policy challenges